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Editorial
Immunosuppressive management in pediatric kidney transplant recipients
Zhao Wenyu, Zhu Youhua
2022, 13(3): 283-287.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.001
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In recent years, clinical efficacy of pediatric kidney transplantation has been gradually enhanced with persistent progress of organ allocation policy, surgical technologies and perioperative management, etc. However, immunosuppressive management still plays a significant role in the long-term prognosis of pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Due to the disparity from adults in physiology, psychology, immune system and drug metabolism, immunosuppressive management in children should be delivered in a specific manner. Therefore, it is necessary to select appropriate immunosuppresants and formulate individualized immunosuppressive regimens according to the characteristics of pediatric kidney transplant recipients in clinical practice. In this article, the characteristics of immunosuppressive therapy, selection of immunosuppresants, glucocorticoid withdrawal, immune monitoring and medication compliance management of pediatric kidney transplant recipients were investigated, aiming to provide reference for optimizing immunosuppressive management and improving clinical prognosis of pediatric kidney transplant recipients.
Research progress on immune tolerance after pediatric liver transplantation
Zhou Aiwei, Liu Yuan, Xue Feng, Xia Qiang
2022, 13(3): 288-295.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.002
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Immune tolerance after liver transplantation refers to discontinuing use of immunosuppressants in varying patterns and maintaining the long-term stability of liver function of the recipients. At present, immune tolerance may be achieved by passive immune tolerance, active operational immune tolerance and induced immune tolerance. Multiple clinical trials have confirmed the safety and feasibility of these approaches. Compared with adults, pediatric recipients undergoing liver transplantation have better potential of immune tolerance, especially the living donor liver transplant recipients. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to predict whether a certain individual may achieve immune tolerance. In this article, research progresses on the characteristics of immune tolerance in pediatric recipients, induction of immune tolerance, operational immune tolerance, induced immune tolerance, screening of recipients and tolerance markers were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the formulation of postoperative immunosuppressant regimens, reduce the overall exposure to immunosuppressants and lower the risk of adverse reactions induced by immunosuppressants in children undergoing liver transplantation.
Surgical technical innovations in pediatric liver transplantation
Gao Wei
2022, 13(3): 296-302.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.003
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In recent decade, pediatric liver transplantation has developed rapidly in China due to the improvement of surgical techniques and postoperative management, which has been applied from several domestic liver transplantation centers to more than 10 provinces, cities and autonomous regions. The annual quantity of pediatric liver transplantation has exceeded 1 000 for 3 consecutive years, ranking first across the world. The technique of pediatric liver transplantation has been gradually oriented to precision medicine. The development of pediatric liver transplantation mainly focuses on the "grafts". In this article, the development characteristics and trends of pediatric liver transplantation were elucidated from the perspectives of different types of liver transplantation that expanded the source of donor liver, including split liver transplantation, auxiliary liver transplantation, Domino liver transplantation and liver transplantation with hyper-reduced grafts, as well as the application of minimally invasive surgical and microsurgical anastomosis techniques in pediatric liver transplantation, which represented by laparoscopic surgery and Da Vinci surgical system, aiming to provide reference for further improving the long-term survival rate of grafts and the quality of life of the recipients.
Production and influence of donor specific antibodies after pediatric kidney transplantation
Chen Gang
2022, 13(3): 303-306.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.004
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In recent years, pediatric kidney transplantation has developed rapidly in China. However, clinical data related to the long-term survival of renal allografts are still lacking. The production of de novo donor specific antibody (dnDSA)and its mediated chronic rejection after adult kidney transplantation are pivotal risk factors affecting the long-term survival of renal allografts. Nevertheless, immune system in children has not fully developed. Hence, the production of dnDSA after kidney transplantation and its influence upon renal allografts and recipients might differ from those of adult. In this article, the characteristics of pediatric immune system, the production and influence of donor specific antibody (DSA) after pediatric kidney transplantation and the risk factors of the production of DSA after pediatric kidney transplantation were reviewed and certain suggestions were proposed for prevention strategies, aiming to provide reference for prolonging the long-term survival of renal allografts after pediatric kidney transplantation and promote the development of pediatric kidney transplantation in China.
Banff Allograft Pathology
Diagnostic criteria and its progress on intestinal graft pathology
Guo Hui, Chen Zhishui
2022, 13(3): 307-316.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.005
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Intestinal transplantation has become the most ideal treatment for intestinal failure. Modern clinical intestinal transplantation includes three types: isolated intestinal transplantation, combined liver-intestinal transplantation and abdominal multivisceral transplantation. The immunological, anatomical and physiological characteristics of intestinal grafts significantly differ from those of other solid transplant organs. Consequently, intestinal grafts could develop specific and severe complications, such as acute rejection, chronic rejection, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), among which acute rejection and infection are extremely challenging. Endoscopic examination and intestinal mucosal biopsy of intestinal grafts could be performed to make timely diagnosis and differentiation of these complications, then deliver targeted treatment and guarantee the long-term survival of recipients and intestinal grafts.
Academic Summary
Research progress on basic immunology of organ transplantation in 2021
Wu Changhong, Xu Ya'nan, Tian Qianchuan, Zhao Yong
2022, 13(3): 317-324.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.006
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In recent years, the science and technology of organ transplantation have developed rapidly, which has been widely applied worldwide. However, multiple challenges remain to be resolved by clinicians, such as functional damage and immune rejection of transplant organs, immune deficiency caused by extensive use of immunosuppressants, chronic allograft dysfunction and adverse reactions. This article introduced relevant key research results published in 2021, taking the function and mechanism of immune cell subsets in the process of organ transplantation rejection or immune tolerance, and the research and application of new materials and drugs in organ transplantation as the main clues. The latest research progresses on regional immune response, especially the application of tissue-resident memory T cell in organ transplantation, were briefly summarized, and the future development of transplantation immunology was prospected.
Research highlights on kidney transplantation in 2021: voices from China
Luo Zihuan, Sun Qiquan
2022, 13(3): 325-332.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.007
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Over the past 70 years, kidney transplantation has become not only the most mature but also the highest-success-rate surgery among all organ transplantation surgeries. However, the long-term survival of kidney transplant recipients is still challenged by such key factors as ischemia-reperfusion injury related to kidney transplantation, rejection, chronic renal allograft dysfunction, renal allograft fibrosis, immunosuppressive therapy, infections and others. Relevant fundamental and clinical studies have emerged endlessly. At the same time, the research related to kidney transplantation also becomes a new hot spot accordingly in the context of the normalization of novel coronavirus pneumonia. This article reviewed the cutting-edge hot spots in relation to the fundamental and clinical aspects of kidney transplantation together with relevant new techniques and new visions. The studies included in this article focused on the reports published by Chinese teams that are more applicable to the current situation of kidney transplantation in China, for the purpose of providing new thoughts and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney transplantation related issues in China.
Expert Forum
Liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure
Fan Qi, Li Zhao
2022, 13(3): 333-337.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.008
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Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a specific category of liver failure, which is mainly characterized by rapid progression and multiple organ failure. At present, patients with ACLF are mainly given with systematic and comprehensive medical therapy to promote liver regeneration. However, liver transplantation is the only potentially curative treatment for patients who failed to respond to medical treatment and rapidly progress into multiple organ failure. Considering the differences of disease progression and clinical prognosis, and the shortage of donor liver in China, it is necessary to actively prevent the triggering factors of ACLF in patients with chronic liver diseases, screen out the recipients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation and deliver precision management during perioperative period of liver transplantation. In this article, the application of liver transplantation in ACLF was illustrated from the perspectives of accurate evaluation of ACLF, proper control of liver transplantation indications and meticulous perioperative management, aiming to optimize the therapeutic strategy of liver transplantation in patients with ACLF.
Research progress on liver transplantation for drug-induced liver injury
Wang Yanwei, Liang Yurong
2022, 13(3): 338-343.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.009
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a type of necrotizing and inflammatory liver disease caused by certain commonly-used drugs, Chinese herbal medicines or dietary supplements. In severe cases, it may lead to acute liver failure. Without liver transplantation, the fatality could reach up to 80%. It is of significance to master the indications of liver transplantation. Several prognostic scoring systems have been developed to help clinicians to decide which patients need urgent liver transplantation, such as King's College criteria (KCC) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring systems. However, these scoring methods have been developed for a long period of time and lack of modifications. Therefore, scholars have proposed several new scoring systems, such as acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scoring systems, which provide novel ideas for the evaluation of liver transplantation. As an important treatment measure for drug-induced acute liver failure, urgent liver transplantation has greatly improved the survival rate of patients. In this article, the classification, clinical diagnosis, liver transplantation evaluation and prognosis of DILI were summarized, aiming to provide reference for the treatment of DILI by liver transplantation.
Clinical research progress on pediatric lung transplantation
Li Huixing, Mao Wenjun
2022, 13(3): 344-348.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.010
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Lung transplantation is an efficacious treatment for end-stage lung diseases in children. Shortage of donor lungs, poor donor-recipient matching, difficult postoperative management, multiple postoperative complications and high fatality jointly restrict the development of pediatric lung transplantation. However, significant progress has been achieved in each transplantation center along with the popularization of organ donation after citizen' s death, advancement of medical science and technology and accumulation of lung transplantation experience. In recent years, clinical application of donor lung from donation after brain death and marginal donor lung repair, maturity of perioperative life support technology and surgical transplantation procedure and reference of management experience after adult lung transplantation have accelerated rapid development of pediatric lung transplantation. In this article, current status and progress on primary diseases, utilization and allocation of donor lungs, selection of surgical techniques, management of postoperative complications and clinical prognosis of pediatric lung transplantation were elucidated, aiming to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Transplantation Forefront
Research progress of NF-κB signaling pathway in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury
Zhang Ruibo, Shen Kaiwen, Yuan Qiang, Wang Qiang, Shen Jun
2022, 13(3): 349-355.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.011
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Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the major cause of poor prognosis after kidney transplantation and partial nephrectomy. Besides, it is also a critical pathophysiological process of acute kidney injury. Consequently, the prevention and treatment of kidney IRI are of significance to improve clinical prognosis of recipients undergoing kidney transplantation. However, the mechanism underlying IRI is complex, and the exact mechanism remains elusive. Inflammation, as one of the main pathogenesis of IRI, plays a significant role in IRI-induced kidney injury. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, as a rapid response transcription factor, has been proven to be involved in the regulation of inflammation during kidney IRI. Therefore, in this article, the structure of NF-κB, the activation pattern of NF-κB signaling pathway, the regulatory mechanisms of NF-κB upstream and downstream signaling pathways in kidney IRI were reviewed, and the role of NF-κB signaling pathway in kidney IRI was investigated, aiming to provide novel clinical ideas for the prevention and treatment of kidney IRI.
Original Article
Exposure difference of various dosage forms of mycophenolic acid in different age groups of pediatric kidney transplantation
Zhang Jie, Cheng Fumin, Zhu Kunlun, Hu Mingyao, Shang Wenjun, Feng Guiwen
2022, 13(3): 356-362.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.012
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  Objective  To investigate the exposure difference of different dosage forms of mycophenolic acid (MPA) between children aged ≤12 and > 12 years old after kidney transplantation.  Methods  Clinical data of 73 children undergoing kidney transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD) were retrospectively analyzed. Postoperative immunosuppressive regimen was MPA+ tacrolimus+glucocorticoid. According to different dosage forms of MPA, all recipients were divided into group A (n=37, mycophenolate mofetil capsules), group B (n=28, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium) and group C (n=8, mycophenolate mofetil dispersible tablets). All children were divided into ≤12 and > 12 years old groups according to the age of kidney transplantation. The daily dosage of different dosage forms was calculated. The blood concentration (C) of MPA and the area under the curve (AUC) were detected by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. The MPA blood concentration was statistically compared between two age groups at different time points. The recovery of renal function and postoperative complications were assessed.  Results  No significant differences were observed in the dosage and blood concentration of drug at different time points among groups A, B and C (all P > 0.05). The MPA-C4 h and AUC in the ≤12 years old group were significantly higher than those in the > 12 years old group (both P < 0.05). In group B, the MPA-C4 h of children aged ≤12 years old was significantly higher compared with that in those aged > 12 years old (P=0.016). The MPA-C4 h of children aged ≤12 years old in group B was higher than those in group A and group C, but the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.080). There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute rejection and infection among three groups (both P > 0.05).  Conclusions  Children of different ages who are given with different dosage forms of MPA after kidney transplantation obtain different exposure rates. The exposure rate of kidney transplant recipients aged ≤12 years old tends to be higher than that of their counterparts aged > 12 years old, mainly seen in the recipients treated with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the exposure level of MPA, which provides significant guidance for adjusting the drug dosage of different dosage forms.
Mechanism of compound Fufangteng mixture-containing serum in promoting proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell
Wu Lingling, Chen Jibing, Jiang Peng, Xie Baiyi, Li Wanli, Yang Yuwei, Wu Zhen, Feng Bingzheng, Gao Hongjun
2022, 13(3): 363-370.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.013
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  Objective  To investigate the effect of compound Fufangteng mixture-containing serum on the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) and its mechanism.  Methods  Rat BMSC were isolated, cultured and purified in vitro by direct adherence method. Cell morphology was observed. Surface markers were identified by flow cytometry. The rats were treated with compound Fufangteng mixture at a dose of 3 mL/(kg·d) by gavage for 14 d, and then the drug-containing serum was collected. BMSC were divided into the blank control group, drug-containing serum group, Notch1 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) group and Notch1 siRNA+drug-containing serum group. The proliferation rate of BMSC was detected and the relative expression levels of Notch1 signaling pathway-associated messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and proteins were measured in each group.  Results  Microscopic observation showed that the first generation BMSC were seen in the long spindle shape, and grown in the parallel or spiral pattern. The third generation BMSC positively expressed CD90 and CD44, whereas were negative for CD45. Compared with the blank control group, the proliferation rate of BMSC in the drug-containing serum group and Notch1 siRNA+ drug-containing serum group was significantly increased, whereas that of BMSC was significantly decreased in the Notch1 siRNA group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the Notch1 siRNA group, the proliferation rate of BMSC was significantly increased in the Notch1 siRNA+drug-containing serum group (P < 0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the relative expression levels of Hey1 and Delta-like ligand (DLL)1 mRNA and proteins were significantly up-regulated in the drug-containing serum group, whereas those were significantly down-regulated in the Notch1 siRNA group and Notch1 siRNA+drug-containing serum group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the Notch1 siRNA group, the relative expression levels of Hey1 and DLL1 mRNA and proteins were significantly up-regulated in the Notch1 siRNA+drug-containing serum group (all P < 0.05).  Conclusions  Compound Fufangteng mixture-containing serum may promote the proliferation of rat BMSC, and its mechanism is probably associated with the activation of Notch1 signaling pathway.
Application study on adoptive transfusion of tolerogenic dendritic cells in promoting immune tolerance of liver transplantation in rat models
Jia Ya' nan, Zhou Lin, Zhao Yang, Wang Jing, Chen Qing, Wang Ruolin, Lang Ren, He Qiang, Li Xianliang
2022, 13(3): 371-377.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.014
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  Objective  To investigate the role of tolerogenic dendritic cell (tolDC) in inducing immune tolerance in liver transplantation.  Methods  Liver transplantation rat models of spontaneous tolerance [Brown Norway (BN)→Lewis, tolerance group, n=6] and acute rejection (AR) (Lewis→BN) were established. In AR rat models, tolDC transfusion was performed in the study group (tolDC group, n=6) and no intervention was given in the control group (AR group, n=6). The survival time of rats in each group was observed. The transplant liver tissues of rats were prepared for pathological examination in each group. The expression of myeloid dendritic cell (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) in rat peripheral blood, transplant liver, spleen and lymph nodes in each group was detected by flow cytometry. The expression levels of serum interleukin (IL)-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ in each group were measured by enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay.  Results  Pathological manifestations of rats in the AR group mainly included inflammatory cell infiltration and tissue structural disorder in transplant liver, and the survival time was 7-14 d. In the tolDC and tolerance groups, the transplant liver tissues were almost normal, and the longest survival time exceeded 100 d. Compared with the AR group, the expression levels of CD11+mDC in peripheral blood, transplant liver, spleen and lymph nodes of rats were significantly down-regulated in the tolerance and tolDC groups (all P < 0.05), and those of CD86 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)Ⅱon the surface of CD11+mDC were also significantly down-regulated (all P < 0.05). Compared with the AR group, the expression levels of pDC in peripheral blood, transplant liver, spleen and lymph nodes of rats were significantly up-regulated in the tolerance and tolDC groups (all P < 0.05), whereas those of MHCⅡon the surface of pDC were all significantly down-regulated (all P < 0.05). Compared with the AR group, the expression levels of serum IL-10 were significantly up-regulated, and IFN-γ were significantly down-regulated in the tolerance and tolDC groups (all P < 0.05).  Conclusions  As tolDC subsets, mDC and pDC play a positive role in regulating the incidence of graft immune tolerance in rats after liver transplantation.
Analysis of influencing factors of organ donation willingness based on ABC attitude model
Guo Hang, Hou Xiaoli, Ren Jing, Cui Qianqian, Wang Xinzhe, Yu Xiang, Kong Yang
2022, 13(3): 378-384.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.015
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  Objective  To investigate the influence of perceptions and emotional attitudes on the public's willingness to organ donation and its path of promotion.  Methods  The mediation effect and structural equation models were established through the convenience sampling method and with ABC attitude model as the theoretical basis to analyze the influence of perceptions and emotional attitudes on the public's willingness to organ donation and the path of promotion.  Results  Among 4 565 investigated subjects, 621 subjects expressly stated that they were not willing to donate their organs after the death, 701 subjects were willing to donate their organs after the death, but only 259 investigated subjects signed the informed content card of organ donation. The differences in the subjects' willingness to donate their organs were statistically significant in terms of different genders, ages, religious beliefs, places of residence and educational degrees (all P < 0.05). The overall Cronbach's α coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.781, KMO=0.842, with good reliability and validity. In the structural equation model, the path coefficient of perceptions on the willingness to donation was 0.39, while that of attitudes on the willingness was 0.25. As such, perceptions and emotional attitudes had positive impacts on the willingness to donate the organs. The results of the mediation effect model indicated that attitudes played significant mediation effects in the causality relationship of perceptions on the willingness to donate organs, and the mediation effect value was 0.035(P < 0.01). The awareness degree of organ donation was the largest determinant to the perception factor, and the path coefficient on the willingness to donation was 0.20. The sense of social honor was the largest determinant to the attitude factor, and the path coefficient was 0.16.  Conclusions  Both perceptions and emotional attitudes positively impact the willingness to donate organs. The awareness degree of organ donation is the largest determinant to the perception factor, while the sense of social honor is the largest determinant to the attitude factor. To improve the public's perception level towards the organ donation and increase the public's sense of social honor towards organ donation contributes to the improvement of the public's willingness to donate organs.
Establishment and effect evaluation of risk prediction model for lung infection after kidney transplantation
Gong Jing, Dou Xiaoqing, Ding Liangcheng, Sun Ya′nan, Li Jingyu, Meng Qinghui
2022, 13(3): 385-392.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.016
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  Objective  To establish and evaluate the predictive value of the risk prediction model for lung infection within postoperative 1 year in kidney transplant recipients.  Methods  Clinical data of 197 kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. All recipients were divided into the infection group (n=42) and non-infection group (n=155) according to the incidence of lung infection within postoperative 1 year. The incidence and risk factors of lung infection after kidney transplantation were analyzed. Risk prediction model was established by multiple logistic regression analysis. Forty-five kidney transplant recipients who met the inclusion criteria, including 8 cases in the infection group and 37 cases in the non-infection group, were selected to verify the predictive effect of the established model.  Results  The incidence of lung infection within 1 year after kidney transplantation was 21.3% (n=42), including 38 cases (90%) of pneumonia severity index (PSI) class Ⅰ, 1 case (2%) of PSI class Ⅲ and 3 cases (8%) of PSI class Ⅴ. Lung infection occurred within 1 month after operation in 13 cases, within postoperative 2-6 months in 22 cases and after postoperative 6 months in 7 cases. Nineteen recipients were diagnosed with bacterial infection, 7 cases of fungal infection, 10 cases of viral infection and 6 cases of mixed infection. Smoking history, diabetes mellitus history, pulmonary disease history and albumin level of < 35 g/L were the independent risk factors for lung infection after kidney transplantation (all P < 0.05). The equation of risk prediction model for postoperative lung infection in kidney transplant recipients was logit (lung infection within postoperative 1 year in kidney transplant recipients)=-1.891+1.063×smoking history (yes=1, no=0)+1.398×diabetes mellitus history (yes=1, no=0)+1.732×pulmonary disease history (yes=1, no=0)+1.269×albumin level (< 35 g/L=1, ≥35 g/L=0). The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was 0.788, the sensitivity was 0.786, the specificity was 0.645, and the Youden index was 0.431, respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test demonstrated that the predicted value of this model yielded relatively high consistency with the observed value. The AUC in the verification group was 0.834. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test validated high degree of calibration of this model.  Conclusions  The risk prediction model, consisting of smoking history, diabetes mellitus history, pulmonary disease history and albumin level as predictors, may effectively predict the incidence of lung infection within postoperative 1 year in kidney transplant recipients.
Incidence and risk factors analysis of colorectal adenomatous polyps in recipients after liver transplantation
Jiang Xiaoqing, Rao Wei, Zhang Peng, Jiang Yingjun, Kong Xinjuan, Xie Man
2022, 13(3): 393-398.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.017
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  Objective  To analyze the incidence and risk factors of colorectal adenomatous polyps (CAP) in recipients after liver transplantation.  Methods  Seventy-seven liver transplant recipients and 231 individuals undergoing colonoscopy during physical examination were recruited in this study. The incidence of CAP and pathological examination results were analyzed. Clinical data of liver transplant recipients were collected. According to the incidence of CAP, liver transplant recipients were divided into the CAP group (n=28) and non-CAP group (n=49). The risk factors of CAP after liver transplantation were identified.  Results  The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of colorectal polyps in liver transplant recipients and physical examination individuals were 43% and 34%, and 29% and 23% for the 5-year cumulative incidence rates of CAP, with no significant differences (both P > 0.05). Among all liver transplant recipients, 65 polyps were detected. The quantity of polyps in 1 case was excessively high and not counted. Multiple polyps were identified in certain recipients. Five polyps were not prepared for pathological examination due to small size. Pathological examination of 60 polyps demonstrated 25 inflammatory polyps, 33 CAP (8 complicated with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 3 complicated with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia), and 2 well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Cox model analysis prompted that use of ciclosporine after liver transplantation was an independent risk factor for CAP in the recipients.  Conclusions  The risk of CAP is slightly elevated after liver transplantation. Postoperative use of ciclosporine is an independent risk factor for CAP in recipients after liver transplantation. Colonoscopy should be emphasized in the recipients after liver transplantation.
Clinical application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in hepatic artery thrombosis after pediatric liver transplantation
Pan Yipeng, Gao Nong, Li Wei, Xu Jian, Ren Xiuyun
2022, 13(3): 399-403.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.018
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  Objective  To investigate the clinical application value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after pediatric liver transplantation.  Methods  Clinical data of 126 pediatric recipients undergoing liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of HAT after pediatric liver transplantation was summarized. Color Doppler ultrasound and CEUS manifestations of HAT were compared.  Results  According to color Doppler ultrasound, 17 cases were highly suspected with HAT. Nine cases were highly suspected with HAT by CEUS, who were subsequently confirmed by CT angiography (CTA) or surgery. CEUS manifestations of HAT showed that hepatic artery was not seen surrounding the portal vein during the arterial phase or even portal venous phase. Hepatocyte necrosis occurred in 4 patients with HAT, and no perfusion of intrahepatic contrast agent was observed on CEUS.  Conclusions  CEUS yields high clinical application value in the diagnosis of HAT after pediatric liver transplantation. It has significant advantages compared with traditional CTA, which could be widely applied in clinical practice.
Review Article
Clinical application of split liver transplantation technique
Zhu Mingqiang, Ding Youming
2022, 13(3): 404-410.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.03.019
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Currently, multiple difficulties exist in clinical liver transplantation, such as shortage of donor liver, increasing quantity of patients waiting for liver transplantation and lack of matching donors, etc. Some children and adult patients have little chance of undergoing liver transplantation, which also limits the development of liver transplantation. In this context, split liver transplantation emerges, in which 1 donor liver can be applied to 2 or even more recipients. It may effectively increase the utilization rate of donor liver and alleviate the shortage of donor liver. With the development of split liver transplantation, the survival rate of split liver transplantation is comparable to that of total liver transplantation. Multiple transplantation centers have routinely adopted split liver transplantation. In this article, the development of split liver transplantation, the selection and matching of donors and recipients, the split and reconstruction techniques of donor liver and postoperative complications were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for subsequent development of split liver transplantation in clinical practice and increase the chance of liver transplantation for more patients diagnosed with end-stage liver diseases.
Guideline on immunosuppressive therapy of recipients with renal transplantation in China(2016 edition)
2016, 7(5): 327-331.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.05.001
Abstract(447) HTML(271) PDF 201KB(150)
摘要:
为提高临床医师对肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗的认识, 规范国内肾移植受者管理, 帮助医师在肾移植临床实践中做出合理决策, 我们组织专家制订了《中国肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗指南(2016版)》。该指南以《2009版改善全球肾病预后组织(KDIGO)肾移植受者管理指南》为主要参考, 结合我国的临床实践经验, 希望能为相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Development status of organ transplantation in China: the report on the 2018 Annual Meeting of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
Shi Bingyi
2019, 10(1): 32-35.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.01.004
Abstract(636) HTML(334) PDF 886KB(94)
摘要:
我国的器官移植事业正处于由数量规模型发展向高质量和高科技含量提升、由移植大国向移植强国冲刺的历史关键时期。在2018年中华医学会器官移植学年会上,主任委员石炳毅教授从中国器官捐献与移植体系建设、中国器官移植发展现状两大方面,作了“继往开来,中国器官移植的发展现状”的报告。新的历史时期赋予我们新的历史使命,器官移植学分会要主动作为,推动科学发展,为贯彻新理念、拓宽新视野、实现新愿景而努力奋斗。
Technical specifcation for clinical application of immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(3): 213-226.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.03.001
Abstract(481) HTML(574) PDF 1076KB(192)
摘要:
为了进一步规范器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织全国31家移植中心的器官移植专家,从器官移植免疫诱导药物应用技术规范、器官移植维持期免疫抑制剂应用技术规范、器官移植常用免疫抑制方案技术规范、器官移植免疫抑制剂血药浓度监测技术规范、器官移植药物性肝肾损伤治疗技术规范等方面,制订本规范,以帮助器官移植工作者规范和优化器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用。
Clinical guideline on living donor renal transplantation in China (2016 edition)
2016, 7(6): 417-426.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.06.002
Abstract(592) HTML(308) PDF 323KB(91)
摘要:
活体供肾移植经历半个多世纪的发展,已成为终末期肾病患者的重要治疗手段。在我国,亲属活体器官捐献肾移植作为家庭自救的方式之一,近年来已成为肾脏供体来源的重要补充部分。本指南以世界卫生组织《人体器官移植指导原则》(1991)、中华人民共和国国务院《人体器官移植条例》(2007)以及国家卫生部《关于规范活体器官移植的若干规定》(2010)为法律依据,在《中国活体供肾移植指南》(2009)的基础上进行更新。内容包括活体供肾移植的伦理学、供者与受者的医学评估、活体供肾摘取原则与手术方式、供者近期与远期并发症以及供者的长期随访等。
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association Process and specification of Chinese donation after citizen′s death (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(2): 122-127.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.003
Abstract(1275) HTML(613) PDF 5080KB(70)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国公民逝世后器官捐献的流程,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植和器官捐献相关专家,从报名登记、捐献评估、捐献确认、器官获取、器官分配、遗体处理、人道救助、捐献文书归档等8个环节,制定中国公民逝世后器官捐献流程和规范(2019版)。
2017, 8(4): 251-259.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2017.04.001
Abstract(321) HTML(238) PDF 871KB(24)
摘要:
为了更好地将加速康复外科(ERAS)的理念用于优化重型肝炎肝移植围手术期管理,达到减少并发症、促进患者快速康复的目的,中国医师协会器官移植分会移植免疫学组、中华医学会外科学分会手术学组、广东省医师协会器官移植医师分会组织专家制订了《加速康复外科优化重型肝炎肝移植围手术期管理临床实践的专家共识》。该共识从ERAS优化重型肝炎肝移植术前、术中、术后治疗策略3个方面,总结各移植中心的临床经验,提出相应的专家共识,希望为临床优化重型肝炎肝移植围手术期管理提供参考方案。
2019, 10(2): 142-148.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.005
Abstract(543) HTML(486) PDF 7197KB(132)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国实体器官移植(SOT)受者巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染的诊断和治疗,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植专家、感染病学专家及呼吸内科专家,在《实体器官移植受者巨细胞病毒感染诊疗指南(2017版)》的基础上,从CMV感染的主要危险因素、实验室诊断、临床类型、预防方案,CMV病的治疗,儿童SOT术后CMV感染或CMV病的防治,CMV肺炎合并伊氏肺孢子菌肺炎的防治等方面,制订本规范,以期为我国SOT术后CMV感染的规范化防治提供指导意见。
Guideline on clinical diagnosis and treatment for rejection of renal transplantation in China(2016 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, Branch of Organ Transplant Physician of Chinese Medical Doctor Association
2016, 7(5): 332-338.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.05.002
Abstract(369) HTML(275) PDF 264KB(131)
摘要:
排斥反应是影响移植肾长期存活的首要独立危险因素,是亟待解决的瓶颈问题。中华医学会器官移植学分会和中国医师协会器官移植医师分会组织国内专家,总结各中心肾移植的临床经验,依据Banff 2013标准,编写了本部指南,希望能为相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Summary of important research on liver transplantation in 2017
Li Haibo, Fu Hongyuan, Lu Tongyu, Zeng Kaining, Zhang Yingcai, Yang Yang
2018, 9(1): 41-50,82.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2018.01.006
Abstract(366) HTML(240) PDF 1280KB(17)
摘要:
肝移植是目前公认的治疗终末期肝病的最有效措施。经过超过50年的发展,肝移植患者术后存活时间不断延长,并发症的发生率亦有所降低。但是,如何改善供肝短缺的现状、减轻供肝缺血-再灌注损伤,减少并发症的发生率以及进一步提高肝移植患者的远期疗效仍然是困扰肝移植科医师的难题。因此,了解最新的外科技术、多中心临床经验以及相关基础研究结果,将帮助我们更深入地认识疾病本质,为患者制定更妥善的治疗方案。本文综合国际核心期刊报道的内容,对2017年度肝移植相关领域的研究热点及最新进展作一综述,并对今后的研究方向作出展望。
Technical specification for the diagnosis and treatment on rejection of renal transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(5): 505-512.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.05.008
Abstract(179) HTML(89) PDF 882KB(104)
摘要:
为了进一步规范肾移植排斥反应的临床诊断与治疗, 中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植学专家, 总结各移植中心的肾移植临床经验, 在《中国肾脏移植排斥反应临床诊疗指南(2016版)》的基础上, 并依据Banff标准, 从超急性排斥反应、急性加速性排斥反应、急性排斥反应、慢性排斥反应等方面, 制订本规范。
Overview of global organ donation and transplantation in 2020
Jiang Wenshi, Sun Yongkang, Yan Juan, Jiang Feng, Wang Huiying, Ma Qiruo, Xie Ying, He Xiangxiang, Wu Xiaotong
2021, 12(4): 376-383.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2021.04.002
Abstract(1310) HTML(1227) PDF 1734KB(1227)
Abstract:
  Objective  At present, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging in certain regions around the globe, and the prevention and control of the pandemic should be strengthened. Under the challenges of respective social environment and allocation of medical resources, and support from the inertia and inherent productivity of the system on which the industry depends, extensive attempts are being delivered to push forward the work of organ donation and transplantation in each country. Under the guidance of national experts and committee members, Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center was established on August 28, 2018 approved by the former Shanxi Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission. It is the only independent non-profit medical institution in Shanxi Province. In this article, the system construction of citizen's organ donation and transplantation fitting national and provincial conditions was further explored according to the data analysis of organ donation and transplantation in the United States and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic combined with the implementation of organ donation work in Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center.
Technical specifcation for clinical application of immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(3): 213-226.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.03.001
Abstract(481) HTML(574) PDF 1076KB(574)
Abstract:

Competent Authorities: Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China

Sponsored by: Sun Yat-sen University

Presented by: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Editor-in-Chief: Gui-Hua Chen

Publisher: Editorial Office of Organ Transplantation

Address: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou

Postcode: 510630

Tel: 020-38736410

Email: organtranspl@163.com

Postal Code: 46-35

Website: http://www.organtranspl.com

Journal: bimonthly

Price: 20 yuan for each period and 120 yuan for the whole year

CN 44-1665/R

ISSN 1674-7445